Many investors in their work give preferred orientation of economic clusters. It is caused by the fact that the investor usually specializes in one of the numerous industries, the one where he learned a lot of experience and familiar with all possible nuances. For example, investors who invest in the energy sector, it is difficult to finance pharmaceutical projects, because these spheres are markedly different.

These investors tend to prefer to work in those regions and countries where there are already existing clusters in sectors of interest to them, or at least there are prerequisites for their formation.

Focusing on clusters has received significant spread in the past two decades after the creation and development of clusters has proved its effectiveness in improving the competitiveness of the EU economies, the US and others. The high competitiveness of many foreign countries, based on the positions of strong clusters. One of the most famous examples of the application of the cluster approach is the US Silicon Valley, which has a 87 thousand companies (including venture capital firms and banks which finance the activities of individual companies), dozens of research centers and some of the larger universities.

Industry clusters can be connected by vertical or horizontal relationships. Firms in the same cluster, often localized in geographic proximity to each other. This gives several advantages:

  • improving working relationships between firms involved in joint projects;
  • improving the quality of the production process and finished products;
  • the reduction of transportation costs and fast delivery of goods to the consumer;
  • the rapid diffusion of technology and innovation within the network cluster;
  • the acceleration of processes and reduction of transaction costs due to the presence of trust relationships between members of the cluster.

From this jointly win the company, investors and regions. Companies increase their competitiveness and profitability, investors increase yield and reduce project risks and regions receive new jobs, wealth and tax revenue.

Regions and countries supporting the cluster initiatives are more successful in implementing their development strategies. With limited resources for development, they get the most out of them. Industrial cluster strategy typically include elements such as a comprehensive industry analysis; determining the needs of export-oriented enterprises; analysis of the dynamics of the cluster, including the "drivers" cluster (communication, markets, labour, technology, natural resources); recommendations for action.

In General, the EU already exists more than 2 thousand. clusters, covering approximately 38 per cent of the labour force. There is gaining in popularity in recent years, so-called smart specialisation "regional clusters. For example, one of the most powerful life science clusters located in Denmark and the leader among ICT-clusters in Finland. Cluster structures of Germany are active in the chemical field and mechanical engineering, and France in the field of cosmetics and food.

This trend applies to all over the world. Canada's successful cluster initiatives in biotechnology, high technology, food industry and so on to support these initiatives in various forms present on the Federal, regional and municipal levels. While enterprise regional clusters of China, Singapore and Southeast Asia, maximum use of natural,human and integrative potentials of neighbouring regions.

Sometimes, the business community, where participants interact with each other, can also function as clusters. For example, in Italy there are prototypes of clusters-industrial district (approximately 200, with more than 1 million small and medium-sized enterprises and the order of 6 million workers), most of which have increased its share of the highly specialized global markets up to 80%.

International experience also shows a wide variety of government and municipal clusters support organizations. As a rule, the implementation of cluster strategies presupposes granto forming funds (institutions and agencies), supporting cluster initiatives: for example, the National DATAR Planning Agency (France), information search and classification CASSIS clusters (Luxembourg), the National Competitiveness Council (USA) cooperation program LINK (UK). In addition, organized special institutions operating on the development of function, construction of network structures and their internationalization. These include centers of expertise (Finland), centers of excellence (USA), consulting, marketing and analytics, and branding company (Economic Competitiveness Group (USA), institutions and agencies, members of the cluster initiatives (Technical University of Munich). Is an integral part of the infrastructure soft-ware, cluster strategy is the creation of business incubators, technology parks, special economic zones, which, in fact, act as catalysts for the formation of regional clusters.

All this leads to the fact that the status of the company and its international reputation increases with its entry into the cluster. This enhanced attention to it on the part of financial institutions, and to the region are involved additional resources.

 

Existing clusters